International Journal of Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Research 2017. 11(4):319-327.

Mechanism Action of Platelets and Crucial Blood Coagulation Pathways in Hemostasis
Mercy Halleluyah Periayah, Ahmad Sukari Halim, Arman Zaharil Mat Saad


Blood is considered to be precious because it is the basic necessity for health; our body needs a steady provision of oxygen, supplied via blood, to reach billions of tissues and cells. Hematopoiesis is the process that generates blood cells of all lineages. However, platelets are the smallest blood component formed in the bone marrow and play a fundamental role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelets contribute their hemostatic capacity via adhesion, activation and aggregation, which are triggered upon tissue injury, and these actions stimulate the coagulation factors and other mediators to achieve hemostasis. In addition, these coordinated series of events are the vital biological processes for wound healing phases. The aim of this review is to summarize and highlight the important pathways involved in achieving hemostasis that are ruled by platelets. In addition, this review also describes the mechanism action of platelets, including adhesion, activation, aggregation, and coagulation, as well as the factors that contribute to hemostasis and wound healing.


Platelets, Hemostasis, Coagulation pathways, Coagulation factors, Wound healing

Full Text:



Nakamura T, Kambayashi J, Okuma M, et al. Activation of the GP IIb-IIIa complex induced by platelet adhesion to collagen is mediated by both

Periayah MH, Halim AS, Yaacob NS, et al. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P2Y12 Induction by Oligochitosan Accelerates Platelet Aggregation. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014: 653149.

Platelet research laboratory. Accessed via:

Periayah MH, Halim AS, Yaacob NS, et al. In vitro comparative coagulation studies of novel biodegradable N, O-Carboxymethylchitosan (NO-CMC) and Oligo-Chitosan (O-C). IJPSR. 2014; 5(11): 4689-4698.

Kulkarni R. Alternative and topical approaches to treating the massively bleeding patient. Clinic Adv Hematol Oncol. 2004; 2(7): 428-431.

Stassen JM, Arnout J, Deckmyn H. The hemostatic system. Curr Med Chem. 2004; 11(17):2245-60.

Stroncek JD, Reichert WM. Overview of wound healing in different tissue types. In: Reichert WM (ed). Indwelling Neural Implants: Strategies for Contending with the In Vivo Environment. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2008. Chapter 1.

Davidson SJ. Accessed date: 10 December 2014.

Moake JL. Overview of hemostasis. The merck manual professional edition. 2013. Available from: Accessed date: 27 March 2014.

Kumar, V., Abbas A.K. & Aster, J.C. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed.: Saunders Elsevier. 2009.

Gale AJ. Current Understanding of Hemostasis. Toxicologic pathology. 2011; 39(1):273-280.

Lumen. Boundless Anatomy and Physiology. Overview of hemostasis. Retrieved from: Accessed Date: 14 April 2014.

Marguerie GA, Plow EF, Edgington TS. Human platelets possess an inducible and saturable receptor specific for fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 1979; 254(12): 5357-63.

Andrews RK, Gardiner EE, Shen Y, et al Glycoprotein Ib-IX-V. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2003; 35(8): 1170–4.

Corum LE. Evaluating Surface Induced Platelet Adhesion and Activation with Surface Patterning and Protein Immobilization Techniques. UTAH, USA: University of Utah; 2011.

Rumbaut RE, Thiagarajan P. Platelet-vessel wall interactions in Hemostasis and Thrombosis. San Rafael (ca): Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences. 2010.

Packham MA, Mustard JF. Platelet adhesion. Prog Hemost Thromb. 1984; 7: 211-288.

Ruggeri ZM. Platelet adhesion under flow. Microcirculation. 2009; 16(1): 58–83.

Sadler JE. Biochemistry and genetics of von willebrand factor. Annu Rev Biochem. 1998; 67: 395–424.

Moers A, Wettschureck N, Offermanns S. G13-mediated signaling as a potential target for antiplatelet drugs. Drug News Perspect. 2014; 17(8): 493-8.

Calvete JJ. On the structure and function of platelet integrin alpha IIb beta 3, the fibrinogen receptor. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1995; 208(4):346–60.

Shattil SJ. Signaling through platelet integrin alpha iib beta 3: inside-out, outside-in, and sideways. Thromb Haemost. 1999; 82(2): 318–25.

Gupta S. Selective activation of platelets by surfaces and soluble agonists. In: Ph.D. Thesis. The University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain, 2014.

Niiya K, Hodson E, Bader R, et al. Increased surface expression of the membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex induced by platelet activation. Relationship to the binding of fibrinogen and platelet aggregation. Blood. 1987; 70(2): 475-83.

Coller BS, Cheresh DA, Asch E, et al. Platelet vitronectin receptor expression differentiates Iraqi-Jewish from Arab patients with glanzmann Thrombasthenia in Israel. Blood. 1991; 77(1): 75–83.

Dorsam RT, Kunapuli SP. Central role of the p2y12 receptor in platelet activation. J Clin Invest. 2004; 113(3): 340–5.

Yip J, Shen Y, Berndt MC, et al. Primary platelet adhesion receptors. IUBMB Life. 2005; 57(2): 103–8.

Offermanns S. Activation of platelet function through g protein–coupled receptors. Circ Res. 2006; 99(12): 1293-304.

Lefkowitz JB. Chapter 1: Coagulation pathway and physiology. In: Hemostasis Physiology. JB Lippincott co, Philadelphia, Pa. 2006; 3-12.

Pallister CJ, Watson MS. Haematology, 2nd edn. Scion Publishing Ltd: UK, 2010; 336-347.

Hall JE, Guyton AC. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 12th edn. PHILADELPHIA, PA: SAUNDERS ELSEVIER, USA, 2011.

Green D. Coagulation Cascade. Hemodialysis International. 2006; 10(S2): S2–S4.

Sonawani A, Nilawe P, Barai RS, et al. ClotBase: a knowledge base on proteins involved in blood coagulation. Blood. 2010; 116(5): 855-6.

Clotbase. Blood Coagulation Pathways. Retrieved from: Proteins involved in blood coagulation. Retrieved from: Accesed on: 22 may 2014.

Bick RL, Murano G. Physiology of Hemostasis. Clin Lab Med. 1994; 14(4):677-707.

Hoffman M. Remodeling the blood coagulation cascade. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2003; 16(1- 2):17-20.

Hoffman MM, Monroe DM. Rethinking the coagulation cascade.Curr Hematol Rep. 2005; 4(5):391-6.

Macfarlane RG, Biggs R. Fibrinolysis; its mechanism and significance. Blood.1948: 3(10); 1167- 87.

Hunt TK, Hopf H, et al. Physiology of wound healing. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2000; 13(2 SUPPL):6-11.

Mercandetti m. wound healing and repair. 2013. Retrieved from: Accessed on 23 May 2014.

Simon P.E., Outran H.A., Romo III T., Pafford W., Pearson J.M., Valamanchili H., Zoumalan R.A. Skin Wound Healing. 2014. Available online: Accessed on: 10 December 2014

Letterio JJ, Roberts AB. Regulation of immune responses by TGF-beta. Annu Rev Immunol. 1998; 16: 137-61.

Ghadami M, Makita Y, Yoshida K, et al. Genetic mapping of the Camurati-Engelmann disease locus to chromosome 19q13.1-q13.3. Am J Hum Genet. 2000; 66(1): 143–7.

Vaughn SP, Broussard S, Hall Cr, et al. Confirmation of the mapping of the Camurati-Englemann locus to 19q13. 2 and Refinement to a 3.2-CM Region. Genomics. 2000; 66(1): 119–21.

Judith R, Nithya M, Rose C, et al. Application of a PDGF-containing novel gel for cutaneous wound healing. Life Sci. 2010; 87(1–2):1-8.

Nguyen DT, Orgill DP, Murphy GF. Chapter 4: The Pathophysiologic Basis for Wound Healing and Cutaneous Regeneration. Biomaterials for Treating Skin Loss. In: Biomaterials for treating skin loss. Cambridge/Boca Raton: Woodhead Publishing (UK/Europe) & CRC Press (US); 2009. P. 25–57.

Dealey C. The care of wounds: A guide for nurses, 3rd edn. Oxford: Malden, MASS. Blackwell Science Ltd, 1999.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.