International Journal of Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Research 2018. 12(1):23-28.

Pattern of Kebab Intake as a Potential Carcinogenic Risk Factor in Adults of Kermanshah, Iran: 2015
Seyyed Mostafa Nachvak, Mahboobe Hosseinikia, Hadi Abdollahzad, Yahya Pasdar, Farhad Oubari, Roghaye Hosseinikia, Maryam Shabanpur


Background: Epidemiologic studies indicated that dietary pattern plays a determinant role in cancer incidence. They also indicated that 1/3 of cancers are associated to foods. Diet contains different carcinogenic agents: naturally occurring chemicals, synthetic components and compounds produced during cooking such as kebab. This traditional food is one of the most popular foods in the Middle East, particularly in Iran. Red meat, especially lamb or veal, is the most common meat used in preparation of kebab. Since kebab is considered as a food containing carcinogenic compounds, so the purpose of this study was to assess the consumption pattern of kebab in a sample of Iranian adults and its relationship with demographic characteristics.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and April 2015 on 705 Iranian adults who were living in Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. Subjects were selected randomly from different districts of Kermanshah. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey which had been designed by academic members of Department of Nutrition at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. The results were expressed as mean ± SD. Student’s t-test, ANOVA and chi-square tests were performed to compare the study groups. The normality of data was assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. All results were analyzed using a significance level of P <0.05.

Results: The results indicated that nearly 60% of subjects have a high tendency to consume kebab. The average of kebab consumption among the participants in this study was 4 times per month. Nearly, 85% of study participants tended to consume kebab with a large amount of salt. The chi-square test determined the significant difference between education and tendency to consume kebab; individuals with higher level of education had more tendency to consume kebab than those having lower level of education (p=0.021). In this study, 93.9% of participants used charcoal, a cooking fuel, to prepare kebab.

Conclusion: The results of this study point out that the study participants, regardless of socio-economic status, consume high amounts of kebab, and thus this unhealthy eating habit will increase the risk of carcinogenesis. Therefore, the immediate attention of Public Health Officials is required.


Kebab, Dietary pattern, Cancer

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