Dihydrotestosterone and 17-Estradiol Enhancement of In Vitro Osteogenic Differentiation of Castrated Male Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (rBMMSCs)
Background: In vitro impact of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17b-estradiol (E2) in osteogenic differentiation of castrated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSC) still need to be clarified.
Materials and Methods: The viability, proliferation and density of cultured rBMMSC isolated from sham operated (Sham) and castrated (Cast) male rats were evaluated. rBMMSC were cultured with osteogenic differentiating medium (ODM) in the presence of DHT (5,10 nM) and E2 (10,100 nM). Osteogenesis was evaluated by alizarin red staining and measurement of calcium deposition and bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) activity.
Results: Population doubling (PD) of rBMMSC isolated from Cast rats was significantly lower (P<0.05) compared to that isolated from Sham rats. rBMMSC from Cast rats showed low scattered calcified nodule after culturing in ODM and did not cause a significant increase in calcium deposition and B-ALP activity compared to rBMMSCs from Sham rats. Exposure of rBMMSC isolated from Cast rats to DHT (5 nM) or E2 (10 nM) in ODM showed medium scattered calcified nodules with significantly higher (P<0.05) calcium deposition and B-ALP activity. Moreover, exposure of rBMMSC to DHT (10 nM) or E2 (100 nM) showed high scattered calcified nodules with higher (P<0.01) calcium deposition and B-ALP activity
Conclusion: These results indicated that the presence of testes might participate in controlling the in vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation capacity of rBMMSCs. DHT and E2 can enhance the osteogenic capacity of rBMMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these observations, optimum usage of DHT and E2 can overcome the limitations of MSCs and advance the therapeutic bone regeneration potential in the future.
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