Serum Cystatin C as a Potential Marker for Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Cholangiocarcinoma
Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common primary hepatobiliary cancer. These patients have meager prognosis and short-term survival. Precise assessment of glomerular filtration rate is a fundamental aspect of clinical care in cancer patients. Cystatin C has been proposed to be superior to creatinine, a well-known marker of renal function. This study aimed to evaluate cystatin C as a marker of GFR calculation in CCA patients.
Materials and Methods: One hundred thirty serum samples from CCA patients and 32 from controls were included in this study. Serum cystatin C was measured using immunoturbidity assay. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated by three equations established by chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (based on creatinine and/or cystatin C).
Results: Serum cystatin C in CCA patients was higher than that of controls (p=0.0002). Cystatin C was positively correlated with BUN in CCA group (p=0.019). eGFR based on cystatin C and based on both cystatin C and creatinine in CCA was low with significantly different from those of control (p<0.001). Although there was no difference in eGFR using three equations in control, creatinine based eGFR was high with significantly different from eGFR based on cystatin C and on both creatinine and cystatin C in CCA (P=0.000). Proportion in each eGFR stage by three equations showed a high sensitivity with significantly different in CCA (p<0.05).
Conclusion: There was a high sensitivity of cys C with significant difference between creatinine and/or cystatin C based eGFR in CCA patients. It should take account into consideration of mild changes in eGFR by cystatin C which is important in managing drug dosage for CCA patients.
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