Original Article

Evaluation of Correlation between Serum Free Light-Chain Assay and Bone Marrow Study in Multiple Myeloma Patients


Background: Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy manifested by the secretion of abnormal immunoglobulin. Different methods have been described for diagnosis and patient response to management. Serum free light-chain assay is recently approved in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma patients.

This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of serum free light-chain assay and its agreement to bone marrow findings.

Materials and Methods: Forty-six patients with the diagnosis of multiple myeloma were enrolled in the study. The patients were grouped into newly diagnosed cases (22 patients,47.8%) and known cases who were under treatment (24 patients,52.2%). Bone marrow study was done and percentage and clonal status of plasma cells were evaluated by a combination of immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Free light-chain assay was done in all patients and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were analyzed.

Results: Thirty of 46 patients showed monoclonal plasma cell infiltration and 16 patients showed polyclonal plasma cell infiltration based on bone marrow findings. An abnormal κ/λ ratio was seen in 15(68.18%) of new cases and 16(66.6%) of known cases. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for κ⁄λ ratio were 72.73%, 46.15%, 71%, and 50%, respectively.

Conclusion: In conclusion, due to high false positive and false negative results, the presence of an abnormal serum FLC ratio was not equal to the presence of monoclonal gammopathy, and observation of a normal ratio does not exclude the presence of monoclonal gammopathy.

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IssueVol 15 No 3 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijhoscr.v15i3.6845
Multiple myeloma; Serum free light-chain; Bone marrow

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How to Cite
Zamani F, Shokripour M, Mokhtari M. Evaluation of Correlation between Serum Free Light-Chain Assay and Bone Marrow Study in Multiple Myeloma Patients. Int J Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Res. 2021;15(3):152-159.