Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell based application in Cancer.
AbstractStem cell based treatments are being increasingly explored for their possible potential to treat various cancers. Mesenchymal stem cells believed to possess anti-tumor potential and are preferred for their properties like immune privileged nature, ability to migrate to the site of tumor and capability for multilineage differentiation. This tumor tropism property of MSCs could be utilized to deliver anti-tumor biological agents to the site of tumor. In a tumor micro-environment, MSCs are believed to play both, a pro-tumorigenic and an anti-tumorigenic role. However, this is dependent on a host of factors like, types of MSCs, its source, type of cancer cell line under investigation, in vivo or in vitro conditions, factors secreted by MSCs and interactions between MSCs, host’s immune cells and cancer cells. Among several cytokines secreted by MSCs, TRAIL (Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand) is reported to be pro-apoptotic for tumor cells. The MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissue have been studied quite extensively. Deriving MSCs from sources such as umbilical cord blood and umbilical cord tissue is relatively easier. Umbilical cord tissue preferred for MSC derivation due to their abundant availability. These MSCs believed to up regulate TRAIL expression in MSC-cancer cell co-culture system resulting in induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. However, umbilical cord tissue derived MSCs needs to be studied for expression pattern of TRAIL in a co-culture system. We present a review article on different studies reporting both, pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic properties of MSCs.
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