Role of Hippo Pathway Effector Tafazzin Protein in Maintaining Stemness of Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UC-MSC)
Tafazzin (TAZ) protein has been upregulated in various types of human cancers, although the basis for elevation is uncertain, it has been made definite that the effect of mutation in the hippo pathway, particularly when it is switched off, considerably activates tafazzin transcriptionally and thus this results in tissue or tumor overgrowth. Recent perceptions into the activity of tafazzin, have ascribed to it, a role as stem cell factor in mouse mesenchymal and as well as in neural stem cells. Being a downstream molecule in Hippo signalling, phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of tafazzin gene regulates its transcriptional activity and the stemness of mesenchymal stem cells. Commonly, extracellular matrix controls the stem cell fate commitment and perhaps tafazzin controls stemness through altering the extra cellular matrix. Extracellular matrix is generally made up of prime proteoglycans and the fate stabilization of the resulting lineages is surveilled by engineering these glycans. Tafazzin degradation and addition of proteoglycans affect physical attributes of the extracellular matrix that drives cell differentiation into various lineages. Thus, tafazzin along with major glycans present in the extracellular matrix is involved in imparting stemness. However, there are incoherent molecular events, wherein both tafazzin and the extracellular matrix components, together either activate or inhibit differentiation of stem cells. This review discusses about the role of tafazzin oncoprotein as a stemness factor.
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