Factors Affecting the Incidence and Severity of Oral Mucositis Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Background: Patients who receive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) experience several complications that oral mucositis (OM) is a frequent symptom. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, prophylaxis and treatment strategies for established OM.
Materials and Methods: We included 173 adult patients who received autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in this study. The World Health Organization oral toxicity scale was used to assess the severity of OM. Patients received two prophylactic regimens: regimen 1 contained nystatin, chlorhexidine, povidone iodine and amphotericin B. Regimen 2 contained nystatin and povidone iodine. 70 patients (40.5%) received the first prophylaxis regimen, 89 patients (51.4%) received the second prophylaxis regimen and the remaining 14 patients (8.1%) were not adherence to the use of the mouthwashes and were excluded from the analysis.
Results: OM was detected in 60.7% of patients with mean (SD) age of 38.1±14.6 years. Multivariate analysis showed that only the female gender and the prophylactic regimen were the significant predictors of OM.
Conclusion: We found that addition of amphotericin B and chlorhexidine, to the nystatin and povidone iodine resulted in a significant beneficial effect in prevention OM.
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