Vol 13, No 2 (2019)

Published: 2019-04-09

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 177 | views: 667 | pages: 49-57

    Background: Over the last few decades, there has been a dramatic increase in hematological malignancies (HMs) in the population of Sardinia. It is accepted that oxidative stress biomarkers have been demonstrated to be prognostically important in various neoplastic diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum vitamin E, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in 80 Sardinian patients with different HMs [acute myeloid leukemia (AML)(n=20), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) (n=20), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) (n=20) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (n=20)] on the day of their diagnosis.
    Materials and Methods: Samples from all participants were obtained after an overnight fast (at least 10 hours). This study was approved and conducted in accordance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines and the Declaration of Helsinki. Patients and controls provided written, informed consent before entering the study. All study participants’ medical history and their medication were documented upon enrolling.
    Results: Lower levels of TAC and Vitamin E were observed in most of the studied groups compared to healthy controls (0.41-0.49 mmol/L vs. 0.56 mmol/L) (19.55-28.55 μmol/L vs. 34.51 μmol/L). Moreover, higher average MDA levels were observed in HL and NHL patients compared to healthy controls (16.6 ng/ml-17.8 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml). Additionally, the ROS values of all studied groups were found elevated. Serum TAC showed significant negative correlations with MDA values (R= -0.51; P<0.001). Statistical significance was observed in all hematological parameters, producing either positive or negative correlation with at least one OS biomarker.
    Conclusion: The present data suggest that Sardinian patients with HL and NHL on the day of their diagnosis presented the highest OS in comparison to AML and healthy subjects. Moreover, MDS patients presented high OS status. Likewise, our results also indicated that changes in their hematological indices are eminent of their oxidative and antioxidative status.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 100 | views: 456 | pages: 61-67

     Background: Beta-thalassemia is one of the most prevalent inherited blood diseases among Iranians. The aim of this study was to elucidate the chromosomal background of beta-thalassemia mutations in Esfahan province, Iran.
    Materials and Methods: In this study, we investigated three frequent mutations (c.315+1G>A, c.93-21G>A and c.92+5G>C in the β-globin gene, the frequency of RFLP haplotypes, and LD between markers at β-globin gene cluster) in 150 beta-thalassemia patients and 50 healthy individuals. The molecular and population genetic investigations were performed on RFLP markers HindIII in the c.315+1G>A of (HindIIIG) and (HindIIIA) genes, AvaII in the c.315+1G>A of β-globin gene and BamHI 3' to the β-globin gene. All statistical analyses were performed using Power Marker software and SISA server.
    Results: Fifty percent of beta-thalassemia patients were associated with these mutations. Haplotype I was the most prevalent haplotype among beta-thalassemia patients (39.33%) and normal individuals (46%). The commonest c.315+1G>A mutation in our population was tightly linked with haplotype III (43.75%) and haplotype I (31.25%). The second prevalent mutation, c.92+5G>C, was 90%, 6.66%, and 3.33% in linkage disequilibrium with haplotypes I, VII, and III, respectively. The c.93-21G>A mutation indicated a strong association with haplotype I (80%).
    Conclusion: Our study participants like beta-thalassemia patients from Kermanshah province was found to possess similar haplotype background for common mutations.The emergence of most prevalent mutations on chromosomes with different haplotypes can be explained by gene conversion and recombination. High linkage of a mutation with specific haplotype is consistent with the hypothesis that chromosomes carrying beta-thalassemia mutations experienced positive selection pressure, probably because of the protection against malaria experienced by beta-thalassemia carriers.





  • XML | PDF | downloads: 142 | views: 475 | pages: 83-94

     Background: Caring is one of the main concepts in nursing and its modes of delivery in different diseases have been widely studied. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a novel, complex, and time-consuming clinical intervention which is applied as a final medical choice in several life-threatening diseases. The aim of the current study was to explore the process of caring for patients undergoing HSCT.
    Materials and Methods: In this article, we present a qualitative research study conducted between 2011 and 2013 in accordance with the procedures of grounded theory methodology. Data were gathered by interviewing and observing health professionals involved in HSCT process, as well as patients and their families. The study participants consisted of 18 HSCT nurses, 2 physicians, 12 patients, and 7 members of patients’ families. The initial sampling in the study was purposeful, followed by theoretical sampling. Data were analyzed using the Corbin & Strauss (2008) method.
    Results: Four main categories, reflecting 13 sub-categories, were emerged by analyzing the data: struggling of patients between life and death, trying to reduce the chance of patient’s death, enforcing patients’ spirit and caring achievements. The core variable of study, defined as “supporting patients to go through the HSCT process successfully”, represented the nature and efficiency of care delivered to HSCT patients in the study setting.
    Conclusion: HSCT patients enter the caring process in the context of life-and-death limbo. The caring strategy in HSCT patients is aimed at trying to reduce the chance of the patient’s death, as well as enforcing patients’ spirit. The HSCT process affects all areas involved in various ways and has some outcomes. The findings and the theoretical conclusions of this study are potentially valuable in improving nursing practice, designing of educational programs and setting of caring policies. 


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 139 | views: 439 | pages: 95-101

    Background: Nowadays, excessive blood intake is one of the most common problems in educational hospitals, causing issues such as the lack of proper distribution of blood products among centres, increases in costs and blood bank workloads. So, programs such as a Maximum Surgical Blood Ordering Schedule (MSBOS) were introduced to design a blood ordering schedule, which is a guide to normal transfusion needs for common surgical procedures.  
    Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sampling method was designed and distributed among all sectors of the hospital. Each sector according to the demand for blood and cross-matched transfused units entered the rate of wasted and unused blood bags on the related forms. This study was performed on 1568 patients, of whom 562 (35/84%) were given blood transfusions.
    Results: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern for the maximum surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS) for elective surgical procedures/in elective surgery cases in Imam Ali Hospital, Zahedan. This study was performed on 1568 patients, of whom 562 (35/84%) were given blood transfusions. The mean C/T ratio was 1.61 ± 0.99, the mean TI was 0.61 ± 0.38, and the mean T index was 36.4 ± 30.16%.
    Conclusion: In general, only 55% of the blood units were used. Hernia surgery, thyroidectomy, and patients with renal problems had the greatest number of wasted units. Therefore, according to the results, indications of blood donation should be made correctly by health care personnel in all patients requiring a blood transfusion, and if there is an increased number of indications, packed cells are requested.

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 114 | views: 386 | pages: 72-82

    Transformation of a normal cell to cancerous one is dependent on the accumulation of several genetic and epigenetic alterations. One of the candidate driver genetic alterations can happen in succinate dehydrogenases (SDHx) coding gene include SDHASDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and SDHAF2.  The most important SDH mutation is in the SDHD gene, which encodes the smallest subunit of mitochondrial complex II (SDH). It has key function both in familial and non-familial hereditary paraganglioma/phaeochromocytoma syndrome (HPGL/PCC). SDHx genes mutations can have resulted in genetic and epigenetic changes like histone hypermethylation. These properties can lead to succinate-mediated inhibition of α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. So hypoxic conditions can generate subsequent neoplastic transformation, and in this review, we are presenting the role of SDHx in several malignancies.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 114 | views: 410 | pages: 58-60

    Bone marrow examination plays an important role in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. In some cases with multiple myeloma, marrow plasma cells with cytoplasmic inclusions are seen. In this study, a 46-year- old man was evaluated for multiple myeloma. In bone marrow aspiration, large intracytoplasmic azurophilic granules, resembling intracellular microorganisms were seen. IHC study demonstrated that these cells are CD138 positive. This is a rare histologic finding that usually results from the deposition of excess immunoglobulin.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 108 | views: 459 | pages: 68-71

    Immunotherapy is the treatment that either boosts the patient’s immune system or uses human-made versions of the normal parts of the immune system to kill lymphoma cells or slow their growth.
    A forty-eight-year-old lady with neck nodes, axillary nodes, weight loss and fever diagnosed to have Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) in December 2009 was treated with 6 cycles of R-CHOP, and her treatment was completed in May 2010. After 2 years in July 2012, the patient developed similar symptoms and received salvage chemotherapy with R-DHAP, and her treatment was completed in January 2013. After one and a half years, in August 2014, the patient again had relapsed DLBCL. She was treated with R-ICE 4-cycles and rendered disease-free following allogeneic HSCT in June 2015. But in December 2016, the patient again developed isolated axillary lymphadenopathy and relapsed DLBCL was confirmed by HPR and IHC. This time, the patient was unwilling to go on chemotherapy, but after counselling about the new drug, Nivolumab, she became convinced, and her treatment was started with 3mg per kg every 2 weeks. After 4 cycles, she had a complete response and is now being treated with the same treatment without any symptoms of the disease or any adverse drug reactions. Nivolumab was well tolerated and exhibited antitumor activity in extensively pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory B- cell lymphomas. Additional studies are ongoing to learn more about the use of Nivolumab in these diseases.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 127 | views: 572 | pages: 102-107

    We report a case of a 76-year-old male with a history of relapsed and refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).Our patient was initially treated with front line chemotherapy along with central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis with complete response. He subsequently relapsed, was sensitive to second-line chemotherapy, and underwent autologous stem cell transplantation achieving a complete remission. Only a few months after transplant, the patient suffered his second relapse and was deemed a candidate for Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy (CAR-T). Given his aggressive disease, combined with the time needed to generate CAR-T cells, a multidisciplinary team recommended to treat our patient with liposomal vincristine in combination with rituximab as a bridge therapy. Durable responses have been seen using liposomal vincristine based on results from a recent phase II trial in heavily pretreated patients with DLBCL1. This therapy was effective in stabilizing and reducing active disease in our patient. This case looks to illustrate the use of liposomal vincristine in combination with immunotherapy in a novel setting bridging highly selected patients with active and refractory lymphoma prior to CAR-T. Moreover, we expanded an additional therapeutic point, highlighting the importance of optimal disease control prior to CAR-T cell harvesting, as recent literature has shown that residual malignant cells in the pheresis product may be inadvertently be transfected with the CAR gene, resulting in resistance and further relapse2.