Vol 15, No 4 (2021)

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 204 | views: 335 | pages: 206-212

    Background: Trastuzumab is an efficient monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of Her2-positive breast cancer. Despite its prominent effect on Her2-positive patients’ disease-free Survival. Trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity is still one of the main challenges.  Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are one of the most potent agents used in heart failure, which also showed confirmed cardioprotective effects against anthracycline and doxorubicin. We aimed to assess the cardioprotective effects of Carvedilol in a randomized clinical trial study.

    Materials and Methods: sixty non-metastatic Her-2 positive patients (30 cases; 30 controls) were entered to the study via a simple randomization method. Carvedilol was administered for the patients with the starting dose of 3.125 mg twice a day and started 7 days before trastuzumab administration. The dose has been increased in a three-week period to reach 12.5 mg twice a day and continued until the end of therapy. All the patients underwent an echocardiography after receiving Adriamycin and Cyclophosphamide in order to measure basal Ejection Fraction (EF) and Pulmonary Artery Pressure (PAP). Each patient underwent a follow-up echocardiography in 3,6,9 and 12 months after initiation of the treatment. Finally, all the patients went through the last episode of echocardiography 1 month after the end of treatment. All the Measured PAP and EF has been recorded and analyzed

    Results: EF and PAP changes for both groups had no significant changes during the course of treatment with Trastuzmab (p-value = 0.628 and p-value = 0.723, respectively). 7 patients in the intervention group and 2 patients in the control group presented with EF decrease. Also, 8 patients in the intervention and 9 patients in the control groups showed PAP increase.

    Conclusion: According to our results, in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with trastuzumab, Carvedilol showed no significant protective effect on trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 159 | views: 289 | pages: 213-220

    Background: The D antigen is a subset of Rh blood group antigens involved in the hemolytic disease of the newborn [HDFN] and hemolytic transfusion reaction [HTR]. The hybrid Rhesus box that was created after RH gene deletion, was known as a mechanism of the Rh-negative phenotype. Hybrid marker identification is used to confirm the deletion of the RHD gene and to determine zygosity. This study aims to detect this marker in Rh-negative and weak D phenotype blood donors of the southeast of Iran.

    Materials and Methods: The molecular analysis of the hybrid Rhesus box was performed on the 200 Rh-negative blood donors in Sistan and Baluchestan province, southeast Iran. The presence of alleles responsible for the D variants was assessed by DNA sequencing in 26 weak D phenotype donors.

    Results: Of the 200 Rh-negative blood samples, 198 samples were homozygous (99%), and two samples were heterozygous (1%). Heterozygous samples had RHD*01N.73 allele and the RHD*01N.18 allele. Of the 26 samples with weak D phenotype, 16 partial DLO (61%), 4 partial DBT1 (15.3%), 2 partial DV type 2 (7.7%), 1 weak D type 1, 1 weak D type 4.2.3, 1weak D type 105 and 1 RHD (S103P) (4%) were determined.

    Conclusion: Since RHD gene deletion is the main mechanism of the Rh-negativity in Sistan and Baluchestan provinces, a hybrid Rhesus box marker can be used in resolving RhD typing discrepancies by RHD genotyping methods.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 129 | views: 244 | pages: 221-229

    Background The protein kinase B/mammalian target of the rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) pathway is one of the most potent prosurvival signaling cascades that is constitutively active in neuroblastoma. The eukaryotic translation elongation factor-1, alpha-2 (eEF1A2) protein has been found to activate the Akt/mTOR pathway. However, there is a lack of data on the role of eEF1A2 in neuroblastoma. The present study investigated the effect of eEF1A2 silencing on the viability of neuroblastoma cells and its possible signaling.

    Materials and Methods: Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against eEF1A2. After 48 h of transfection, cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay. The mRNA expression of p53, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and members of the phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR pathway was determined using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The protein expression of Akt and mTOR was measured using Western blot analysis.

    Results: eEF1A2 knockdown significantly decreased the viability of neuroblastoma cells. No significant changes were observed on the expression of p53, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and caspase-3 mRNAs; however, the upregulated trends were noted for the p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. eEF1A2 knockdown significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of both Akt and mTOR. Almost, all of the class I (PIK3CA, PIK3CB, and PIK3CD) and all of the class II PI3K genes were slightly increased in tumor cells with eEF1A2 knockdown. In addition, a slightly decreased expression of the Akt2, mTORC1, and mTORC2 was observed.

    Conclusion: eEF1A2 knockdown induced neuroblastoma cell death, in part through the inhibition of Akt and mTOR, suggesting a potential role of eEF1A2 as a molecular target for neuroblastoma therapy.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 137 | views: 229 | pages: 230-238

    Background: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a serious adverse drug reaction. HIT diagnosis needs an algorithmic approach including clinical evaluation and laboratory tests (screening and confirmatory). Few studies have been conducted on HIT in Iran, and most existing research has been general and based on clinical evaluations alone. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HIT among cardiac surgery patients using an algorithmic approach.

    Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 10 months, at Modares Hospital (Tehran, Iran) on 92 patients who were candidates for cardiac surgery. For the clinical evaluation, the 4Ts scoring system was used; in cases with 4Ts scores ≥4, a laboratory evaluation of anti-PF4/heparin antibody (Ab) was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a HIPA test too as a functional confirmatory method. The patients with 4Ts scores ≥4 who were ELISA positive (OD ≥0.2) and HIPA positive were taken as a definite case of HIT.

    Results: Of the 92 patients who had undergone cardiac surgery, 14 (15%) had 4Ts scores ≥4. Anti- PF4/heparin Ab was detected in eight patients using the ELISA and in six patients using the HIPA. Ultimately, definite HIT was confirmed in five of the patients.

    Conclusion: The prevalence of HIT was 5.4% among the cardiac surgery patients assessed in the present study. To the researchers’ knowledge, this is the first time that HIT has been evaluated in Iran using a comprehensive algorithmic approach including clinical history-taking and both immunological and functional laboratory tests, and the findings showed a slightly higher HIT frequency in this single-center study in comparison with the other studies carried out in other countries.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 149 | views: 260 | pages: 239-248

    Background: One of the important causes of mortality and morbidity in kidney transplanted patients is Post Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disease (PTLD), which is due to immunosuppression therapy and viral activity. It seems that Rapamycin, with dual antineoplastic and immunosuppressive effects, may have a pivotal role in the treatment of PTLD patients and preserving transplanted kidneys.

    Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with PTLD were enrolled.  Immunosuppressive therapy was reduced or ceased, and Rapamycin was initiated at the time of PTLD diagnosis. We evaluated the effects of switching immunosuppressive drugs to Rapamycin on graft status, the response of tumor, and 6, 12 months, and 5-year survival in patients.

    Results: PTLD remission was achieved in 14 patients, while six patients died; no relapse was detected in recovered patients. The median of PTLD free time was 25 months, and the mean overall survival in patients with PTLD treated by Rapamycin was 84.8 (95% CI=61.3-108.23).The five-year survival rate was 67%, 12 months survival was 73.8%, and six months' survival was 80%. The response rate to Rapamycin and immunosuppression reduction alone was 46.6%. Four out of 13 Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma patients achieved a complete response just only after the reduction of immunosuppressive drugs and the consumption of Rapamycin.

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of conversion from immunosuppressive medication, particularly of Calcineurin inhibitors to Rapamycin in PTLD patients. However, more research is needed to confirm the Rapamycin effect on patients with PTLD.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 129 | views: 233 | pages: 249-254

    Hodgkin lymphoma variant of Richter’s transformation (HL-RT) is a rare event, occurring in < 1% chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases, of which, in < 10% cases, HL is the first finding leading to a diagnosis of CLL that co-exists simultaneously. Here we report a 60 years old male patient who presented with an outside diagnosis of lymphocyte-rich classical HL. On evaluation, he had only B-symptoms in the form of low-grade fever and weight loss. Peripheral smear revealed mild leukocytosis with an absolute lymphocytosis and a few smudge cells. Bone marrow (BM) aspirate and biopsy exhibited diffuse infiltration by a small cell, low grade, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with no immunohistochemical evidence of HL. Flow cytometry performed on BM was consistent with classical immunoprofile of CLL. Meanwhile the lymph node received for review revealed diffuse effacement of nodal architecture by small mature lymphocytes with immunoprofile of CLL expressing CD20, CD5, and CD23. Interspersed between these cells, were a few eosinophils along with classical Reed Sternberg cells, expressing CD30, MUM-1, CD15, and dim PAX-5, with a surrounding rosette of T-Cells highlighted by CD3 and PD-1 and negative for CD45, CD20, and EBV immunohistochemistry. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan revealed hepatosplenomegaly with multiple supra/infra diaphragmatic lymph nodes. So, a final diagnosis of HL-RT in CLL was considered. The patient is currently doing well after the first cycle of ABVD chemotherapy.

    HL-RT occurring in CLL is a rare event with heterogeneous clinical presentation, morphology, clonal origin, disease course, prognostic features, and survival.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 125 | views: 222 | pages: 255-259

    A-64-year old male presented with cough, weight loss, and maculopapular rash for 15-20 days. On examination, he was found to have cervical lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. His leukocyte count was 62.1x109/L, platelets were 1169x109/L and LDH was 816 IU/L. Peripheral blood film showed a leukoerythroblastic picture with thrombocytosis. He was started on hydroxyurea and allopurinol. Subsequently, bone marrow evaluation was done which depicted increased lymphoid cells with an M:E ratio of 4:1. Cellular areas exhibited an increase in myeloid precursors along with prominent lymphoid cells and abundant megakaryocytes. Immunohistochemistry showed an increase in B-lymphocytes. Grade MF-2 reticulin fibrosis was noted. Overall findings suggested essential thrombocythemia (ET). On flow cytometry, CD45-positive lymphoid cells population was 31% and showed reactivity to Pan-B-markers with lambda light chain restriction. Janus Kinase (JAK) 2 mutation was detected while BCR-ABL1 translocation was negative. A diagnosis of ET progressing to myelofibrosis and mature B-lymphoproliferative disorder was made. Hydroxyurea and allopurinol were stopped while ruxolitinib was introduced and 2.5 years later he remains stable on this treatment.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 106 | views: 170 | pages: 260-262

    Rosai Dorfman disease is a rare histiocytic disorder of over-production of non-Langerhans histiocytes, which typically manifests with massive lymphadenopathy and sinonasal involvement.  We report a rare case of systemic and disseminated craniospinal Rosai-Dorfman disease with intraparenchymal and leptomeningeal involvement, but no sinus or dural-based disease.  The diagnosis was established by biopsy of a hypothalamic mass.  Additionally, UCSF500 Next Generation Sequencing demonstrated a solitary pathogenic alteration affecting the BRAF oncogene, which supports the morphologic and immunohistochemical diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease.