Vol 9, No 3 (2015)

Published: 2015-09-15

Articles

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 150 | views: 335 | pages: 107-111

    Background: Thromboembolism is the most important complication of cancers.The aim of this study was to determine D-dimer levels in benign and malignant tumors of the uterus, ovary and cervix.
    Subjects and Methods: This was a cross sectional study and it was conducted on 90 female patients referred to Imam Khomeini and Arash Hospitals because of uterine, cervical and ovarian tumors in 2013-2014. After surgical resection or tissue biopsy, 2 cc of each patient’s blood was taken to be sent to laboratory of hospitals. “Nycocard” kit was chosen to measure D-dimer levels in Mg/Lit by neflumetry method. Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 by T-test and One-Way ANOVA test.
    Results: The highest mean of D-dimer was 3.9 (± 2.9SD) in malignant cervical tumors. The mean plasma levels of D-dimer in malignant uterine cancers (P = 0.008), ovarian cancers (P = 0.007) and cervical cancers (P = 0.006) was significantly higher than benign tumors. In all three types of uterine, ovarian and cervical cancers, D-dimer was significantly higher in advanced stages than lower stages.
    Conclusion: The plasma D-dimer levels in patients with malignant tumors of the uterus, cervix and ovary were higher than benign types. By increasing the stage of gynecologic malignant tumors, the levels of plasma D-dimer were increased.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 140 | views: 1142 | pages: 112-121

    Background: Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment option for many patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); however, it can lead to complications of Graft-Versus-Host-Disease (GVHD) which can affect the quality of life and overall survival. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of both acute and chronic GVHD on survival rate in patients with AML who received HSCT.
    Subjects and Methods: In a longitudinal study, 587 patients with AML who underwent bone marrow transplantation in Tehran-Iran between1991 and 2011 were recruited. All patient records were analyzed for the occurrence of adverse events including acute and chronic GVHD and leukemia relapse. Data were analyzed using Log-rank, Kaplan-Meier, Univariate and Multivariate Cox Regression models.
    Results:
    The five-year overall survival (OS) was found to be 71.9% (95% CI: 67.40-76.41). Also there was a significant relationship between cGVHD and OS (P=0.001, HR = 0.476, 95%). Hazard of death in these patients was less than those who did not experience an occurrence of cGVHD and aGVHD (HR= 0.629, P= 0.078). A significant relationship between cGVHD and relapse was observed (P< 0.001) indicating that patients who developed cGVHD experienced a better survival rate. A significant relationship was also found between overall survival and aGVHD grade (P< 0.001). Hazard of death (HD) for cGVHD and relapse variables were estimated to be 0.554 and 3.869.
    Discussion: This study is one of the largest studies (regarding the number of participants) done to date in the Middle East with quite a long duration (20 years). cGVHD appears to have a positive influence on survival rate in patients with AML who received HSCT. It is recommended that further studies investigate the underlying reason or mechanisms behind this.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 130 | views: 219 | pages: 122-127

    Background: The impact of treatment on cancer patients’ quality of life (QoL) has been the focus of a variety of longitudinal studies in English literature for past decade. The measurement of patient-reported outcomes which includes health-related quality of life is a new important initiative which has emerged and grown over the past three decades. Following the development of reliable and valid self-reported questionnaires, health-related quality of life has been assessed in tens of thousands of patients and a wide variety of cancers. With growing information, feedback and experience, the quality of the health-related QOL studies has improved a lot. We expect in near future more methodologically robust studies will be done in a scientific way to answer unanswered questions.
    Methods: As part of a Dean's summer project, a survey was undertaken to facilitate a more complete description of the quality of life experience in patients with histological diagnosis of cancer undergoing external beam radiation as an outpatient at Allan Blair Cancer Center, Regina, Canada. The questionnaires had two major components: depression and global QOL. The depression was measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale which is a short self-administered survey to quantify the depression status of a patient.
    Results: Overall, only the equation associated with the outcome of QoL - Physical well-being was significant. That data indicated that only the variable of age was a significant predictor. A positive relationship was present indicating higher levels of depression when patients received chemotherapy or narcotics. Breast cancer patients were less depressed than lung cancer patients.
    Conclusion: Cancer and its related treatment is an important health issue influencing QoL. The study has revealed that the use of chemotherapy and narcotics has a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL).

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 131 | views: 213 | pages: 128-132

    Background: Among the many complications reported for cirrhosis, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has attracted much attention. This type of anemia, in contrast to other types of anemia, is easy to treat prophylactically, but if left untreated can lead to a poor quality of life. The aim of this study was to estimate the hemoglobin and serum iron levels among patients with liver cirrhosis for the early diagnosis of IDA and to avoid unnecessary testing and iron supplementation.
    Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 88 children diagnosed with cirrhosis were included, and the values of hemoglobin, serum iron levels and relationship between serum iron (SI), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), prothrombine time (PT), international normalization ratio (INR), total and direct bilirubin and hepatic enzymes were estimated using paired t test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests.
    Results: Forty-six (52.3%) of 88 children were girls and 42 (47.7%) were boys. Forty-eight (54.5%) patients had anemia and 8 (9%) had iron deficiency anemia (5 boys, 5.6%, and 3 girls, 3.4%). No relationships were observed between iron deficiency anemia and the patient’s age or gender, whereas there was a relationship between iron deficiency and severity and duration of the disease, although the correlation was not statistically significant.
    Conclusion:
    The high frequency of iron deficiency anemia in children with cirrhosis (9%) suggests that timely screening should be used for early diagnosis and treatment.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 138 | views: 281 | pages: 133-137

    Background: Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a chronic B-cell lymphoid leukemia characterized by pancytopenia, splenomegaly, myelofibrosis and the presence in peripheral blood, bone marrow and spleen of atypical lymphoid cells with a hairy aspect. The study aims to evaluate a group of patients with hairy cell leukemia, hospitalized in the Clinic of Hematology and Oncology, Kermanshah, Iran, on a period of 15 years and affect of between cladribine therapy and IFN therapy on the patients with HCL.
    Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 11 patients in the Clinic of Hematology and Oncology, Kermanshah, Iran, between 2004 and 2013. Clinical features at diagnosis, differential count (platelet, Hb and WBC) types of therapy, survival rate and BRAF mutation have been monitored. As a result, cladribine therapy is the best treatment option for patients.
    Results: The mean age of patients was 50 years with 100% of men. Approximately 45% of them had splenomegaly at diagnosis. 100% of patients had pancytopenia at diagnosis.9% of patients had mutation of BRAF V600E. Before of treatment, there were fatigue, weight loss, vomiting, fever, night sweat and itching in all of the patients.
    Conclusion:
    There is presence of hairy cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow and was associated with pancytopenia, splenomegaly, myelofibrosis in HCL patients. Also, cladribine therapy is best option for treatment of patients and it is better than IFN.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 130 | views: 215 | pages: 138-142

    Background: Alpha thalassemia (α-thal) is one of the most common hemoglobinopathies worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the spectrum of α-thal mutations among premarital Baluch couples in southeastern Iran.
    Subjects and Methods: We assessed 1215 individuals by multiplex gap polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS-PCR).
    Results: Of the 1215 participants with mean age of 23±5.7 years, 62.3% lived in urban areas, and the rate of consanguineous marriage was 68.1%. Five mutations were identified, the most frequent one was –α3.7 (rightward) with a frequency of 76.5%, followed by α−5 nt (16.8%), α2/ Codon 19(-G) (4%), –α4.2 (leftward)(2.4%), – –MED (0.3%) among mutated alleles of the α -globin gene.
    Conclusion: Knowing the alpha-genotype is helpful for genetic counseling, microcytic anemia discrimination and hemoglobinopathy prevention.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 149 | views: 315 | pages: 143-154

    Leukemia is a hematological tumor in which the malignant myeloid or lymphoid subsets play a pivotal role. Newly identified T helper cell 22 (Th22) is a subset of CD4(+) T cells with distinguished gene expression, function and specific properties apart from other known CD4(+) T cell subsets.Th22 cells are characterized by production of a distinct profile of effector cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-22, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The levels of Th22 and cytokine IL-22 are increased and positively related to inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Recently, several studies have reported the changes in frequency and function of Th22 in acute leukemic disorders as AML and ALL. This review discusses the role of Th22 and its cytokine IL-22 in the immunopathogenesis of leukemic disease.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 134 | views: 229 | pages: 157-160

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is characterized by shortening of red blood cell (RBC) survival and the presence of autoantibodies directed against autologous RBCs. Approximately 20% of autoimmune hemolytic anemia cases are associated with cold-reactive antibody. About half of patients with AIHA have no underlying associated disease; these cases are termed primary or idiopathic. Secondary cases are associated with underlying diseases or with certain drugs. We report herein a rare case of cold autoimmiune hemolytic anemia due to high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type with weak response to rituximab and chemotherapy regimens. For treatment B cell lymphoma, Due to lack of treatment response, we used chemotherapy regimens including R- CHOP for the first time, and then Hyper CVAD, R- ICE and ESHAP were administered, respectively. For treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, we have used the corticosteroid, rituximab, plasmapheresis and blood transfusion and splenectomy. In spite of all attempts, the patient died of anemia and aggressive lymphoma nine months after diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is a rare report from cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia in combination with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type that is refractory to conventional therapies.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 110 | views: 159 | pages: 161-164

    Follicular dendritic cells or dendritic reticulum cells are important components of the immune system essential for antigen presentation. Malignancies arising from these cells are uncommon and the first case was reported in 1986. The most common sites of follicular dendritic cell sarcomas are lymph nodes, especially cervical, axillary and mediastinal regions, but extranodal sites including head and neck and gastrointestinal tract may be affected in one-third of patients. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role in its diagnosis to differentiate it from morphologically similar malignancies The present report describes a case of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with imatininb mesylate for 6 years. This case deserves reporting due to rarity of the disease and hitherto unreported association with CML. Furthermore, the pathological diagnosis is challenging and requires a close-knit effort between the pathologist and haematologist.