Vol 16, No 4 (2022)

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 182 | views: 260 | pages: 189-197

    Background: Conditioning regimens are critical for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). After unfavorable results using BuCy2 at the beginning of our HCT Program, a restructuring was made with the consequent development of a modified HCT method including a reduced conditioning regimen. The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes using Reduced BuCy2 (rBuCy2) in allo-HCT.

    Materials and Methods: Data from 38 consecutive patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who underwent allo-HCT conditioned with rBuCy2 in a 21-year period were retrospectively analyzed.

    Results: Most patients were males (53%) and the median age was 35 years. The most common disease was myelodysplastic syndrome (55%). Toxicity grades III-IV were observed in 44%; and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were observed in 26% and 34%, respectively; the median follow-up was 26 months; 30-day non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 3%, and 1 and 2-year NRM were 8%. Ten-year overall survival (OS) was 60%, and 86%, for AML and MDS, respectively.

    Conclusion: Our rBuCy2 maintains a myeloablative effect, along with immunosuppression for fast engraftment and more importantly, this regimen reduces grades III-IV acute GVHD and NRM in allo-HCT and improves the OS and it appears to be an option for low and middle-income countries

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 123 | views: 254 | pages: 198-208

    Background: Spleen has been found to be the earliest organ involved in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients with variable manifestations in different geographical regions. It usually undergoes autosplenectomy by adolescence but in countries like India, the course of the disease and splenic manifestations are different. And here we aim to study these differences and the relationship between spleen size and fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and various splenic complications in our patients with sickle cell disease.

    Materials and Methods: This is an observational study of 62 adult patients with sickle cell disease admitted in our prestigious institute in the northwestern part of India, mostly hailing from the tribal population. The clinical and ultrasonographic methods have been used to identify splenomegaly and spleen size and prevalence have been calculated. The correlation coefficient has been calculated between fetal hemoglobin, sickle hemoglobin, and spleen size.

    Results: The analysis done revealed that 77.4% of patients had abnormal spleen with high average HbF(14.9±5.0) values compared to those who had normal spleen(12.12±4.1). Only 2 patients were found to have no spleen and 3.3% had splenic infarct. All patients with splenomegaly had anemia, 51.6% of patients were in sickle cell crisis and 22.5% were having infections. We also found a weak but positive correlation between spleen size and HbF.

    Conclusion: This study revealed the persistence of the spleen, the high prevalence of splenomegaly in the Indian adult population with sickle cell disease, and higher levels of fetal hemoglobin, the exact reason for which is still a subject of speculation that needs research. But this paper provides clear evidence of different natural courses of SCD in India.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 101 | views: 164 | pages: 209-216

    Background: Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a distinct lymphoproliferative disorder with unique circulating lymphocyte morphology. It is now regarded as an indolent disease yet treatable with purine analogs. We are going to present a complete long-term clinical and prognostic report of our HCL patients as a large cohort in Iran.

    Methods: All patients diagnosed with HCL according to WHO criteria referred to our academic center in the period of 1995 to 2020 are enrolled. Treatment with daily cladribine regimen was initiated as indicated and patients were followed. Survival data and clinical outcome of patients were calculated.

    Results: A total 50 patients were studied (76% male). Median time to treatment was 4.8 months and complete remission was achieved in 92% of patients. Nine patients (18%) experienced relapse with median time to relapse of 47 months. After median follow-up of 51 months, the median OS was not reached and after 234 months, the overall survival rate was 86%. Survival was worse in patients with non-classic HCL (vHCL) compared to classic HCL.

    Conclusion: Our long-term follow up data confirmed favorable outcome of Iranian HCL patients with cladribine and provide a useful viewpoint of the disease.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 102 | views: 189 | pages: 217-223


    Background: Amplification of HER2 is an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the gold standard for the detection of HER2-positive tumors. However, the Immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay for the detection of HER2 is more popular in the preclinical laboratory since it is faster and more economical compared to the FISH test.

    Materials and Methods: In this study, the status of HER2 amplification is determined by the FISH test using 44 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples and comparing the results with the IHC test to determine the reliability of the IHC test. Also, the relationship between HER2 amplification and estrogen, progesterone receptors, P53, age, menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, tumor size, and histological grade were determined.

    Results: Examination of HER2 in 44 samples by IHC showed 3 (6.8%) and 5 (11.4%) samples were positive (IHC 3+) and negative (IHC 0, 1+), respectively, and 36 (81.8%) samples were ambiguous (IHC 2 +), but examination by FISH showed 21 samples (47, 7%) were positive and 23 samples (52, 3%) were negative. There was a significant difference between IHC and FISH in the detection of HER2 amplification (P=0.019). Also, there was a significant difference between HER2 amplification and menopause in patients (P=0.035).

    Conclusion: This result demonstrated that the IHC test is not a reliable test to determine HER2 amplification. This study represented that FISH analysis is more reliable than IHC and must be preferentially performed for all cases, especially for HER2 +2 cases for whom the IHC result is 2+.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 119 | views: 163 | pages: 224-230

    Background: Drug-drug interaction (DDI) occurs when the pharmacological effect of a drug is altered due to concomitant administration with other drugs. DDIs still remain a serious issue; thus, we conducted this retrospective study to evaluate DDIs prevalence in our care center.

    Methods: All admitted patients with any kind of malignancies that received at least two medications from oncology and non-oncology classifications during six months were enrolled in this study. All relevant data including, patients’ demographic information, diagnosis, hospitalization duration, and all administered medication during hospitalization were recorded. The DDI was assessed by using the latest version of Lexi-interact.

    Results: Each patient received a mean number of 11.6±4.7 medications. The number of non-oncology drugs demonstrated a remarkable correlation with the number of interactions (P<0.001).

    Whereas, the number of oncology drugs does not have any relation with the number of interactions (P=0.64). Among the 763 detected DDIs during this study, the incidence of major, moderate and minor interactions were 31.2%, 61.4%, and 7.3%, respectively.

    Conclusion: Our results highlighted the clinical significance of DDIs, considering that 104 (92%) patients had at least one DDI. The main reason that could have potentially contributed to this outcome is the complicated nature of cancer treatment and clinical management. We believe that using computer software to collect all prescribed and OTC collaboration of clinical pharmacists with oncologists can reduce the potential interactions prior to drug administration.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 105 | views: 181 | pages: 231-238

    Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation strongly affects the care of patients suffering from malignant hematologic disorders and the implementation of interventions such as continuous care can affect the outcomes of treatment in a positive way. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of implementing a continuous care model on self-care behavior in patients receiving HSCT between 2019 and 2020 in Shariati Hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted on 48 patients who were considered as candidates for HSCT at the Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplant Research Center, Shariati Hospital. Participants for the present study were selected by the continuous care model based on the inclusion criteria. A 4-stage continuous care model (CCM) developed was used as an intervention in the study. A valid and reliable assessment questionnaire designed to measure the self-care behaviors of the patient (PHLP2) was used for the collection of demographic information. It was completed in the first and fourth stages of implementing the continuous care model. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22 software (Chicago, IL, USA). Moreover, the Chi-square test, pair t-test, and independent samples t-test were used in this study.

    Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control group in terms of demographic variables (p>0.05). Prior to intervention, no statistically significant difference was observed in the mean self-care score among HSCT patients in the intervention and control group (p=0.590), while, after the intervention, a statistically significant difference was observed in the mean self-care score among HSCT patients in the intervention and control group (p<0.001).

    Conclusion: The study concluded that due to the increase in the number of patients undergoing HSCT across the country in recent years as well as the ease of implementation and low cost of this strategy to promote the self-care of HSCT recipients, relevant authorities ought to do it with the proper planning and policy nationwide. According to the results of the study, the use of a continuous care model on self-care behavior in patients receiving HSCT is recommended.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 101 | views: 164 | pages: 239-249

    Background: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is considered a key factor in carcinogenesis and a genetic alteration pattern in many types of cancers such as gastric cancer (GC). Although the role of MSI in colorectal cancer (CRC) is well known, its prognostic impact on GC has not been clearly defined. The assessment of MSI in GC has not been documented in the Iranian population yet. Therefore, this study analyzed the association of MSI status with GC in Iranian patients.

    Materials and Methods: We compared the frequency of MSI at 5 loci from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) gastrectomy specimens, between metastatic and non-metastatic cases of GC (N = 60). A panel of five quasi-monomorphic markers and a single dinucleotide marker with linker-based fluorescent primers was used.

    Results: MSI was observed in 46.6% of cases, including MSI-high (H) (33.3%) and MSI-Low (L) (13.3%). Moreover, the most unstable and stable markers in our study were NR-21 and BAT-26 accordingly. MSI-H and MSI were seen more frequently in non-metastatic tumors (p= 0.028 and p= 0.019, respectively).

    Conclusion: The current study showed MSI status more frequently in non-metastatic GC which may reflect a good prognostic factor in GC like CRC. Although, larger and more comprehensive studies are needed to confirm this statement. A panel consisting of NR-21, BAT-25, and NR-27 mononucleotide markers appears to be reliable and useful markers for detecting MSI in GC in Iranian patients.

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 106 | views: 224 | pages: 250-263

    Autophagy is an intracellular self-degradative process that delivers cytoplasmic constituents to the lysosome. Autophagy plays a critical role in balancing sources of energy in response to harsh conditions and nutrient deprivation. Autophagy allows cells to survive in harsh condition and also serve as a death mechanism. Any dysregulation in autophagy signaling may lead to several disorders. Autophagy has been proposed to explain chemotherapy resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This signaling pathway can either act as a tumor suppressive function or chemo-resistance mechanism. Conventional chemotherapy drugs enhance apoptosis and indicate clinical benefit, but in some cases, relapse and chemotherapy resistance are observed. In leukemia, autophagy may promote cell survival in response to chemotherapy drugs. Therefore, new strategies by inhibiting or activating autophagy may find a broad application for treating leukemia and may significantly enhance clinical outcomes. In this review, we discussed how dimensional role of autophagy in leukemia.