Vol 17, No 3 (2023)

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 39 | views: 90 | pages: 133-144

    Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. The methylation status of MyoD1, a tumor suppressor gene, is enrolled in various cancers, i.e., BC. Various studies showed the impact of MyoD1 epigenetic dysregulation in BC. This study aimed to investigate the methylation status and expression level of MyoD1 in BC patients and its association with the expression of DNMT1.

    Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 30 cases (pathology-confirmed ductal carcinoma) and 18 controls (fibroadenoma and fibrocystic masses), referred to Velayat Hospital, Qazvin, Iran. The expression of the MyoD1 and DNMT1 and the promoter methylation of the MyoD1 were evaluated in tissue blocks of BC patient masses using qRT-PCR and MS-PCR assays, respectively. SPSS 24.0 was used to analyze the data.

    Results: The MyoD1 promoter is hypermethylated in BC patients compared to controls (p =0.001). The expression level of MyoD1 in BC patients was significantly reduced compared to controls (fold change =0.13, p =0.042). In addition, in BC patients, the reduced expression level of MyoD1 was significantly associated with methylation of the MyoD1 promoter (p =0.001). There is no significant difference between the expression level of DNMT1 in BC patients and controls (p =0.197). A significant association is found between the expression of DNMT1 and the methylation status of the MyoD1 promoter (p =0.038).

    Discussion: The expression level of MyoD1 is affected by the methylation status of the promoter of this gene. Moreover, the expression level and methylation status of MyoD1 are correlated with clinical parameters.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 38 | views: 103 | pages: 145-155

    Background: The identification of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has marked a new era in the molecular understating of the disease. This study investigated the correlation between the changes in the expression of lncRNAs, including HOTAIR, PVT-1, and CRNDE, and the alteration in the expression profile of FLT-3, c-Myc, STAT3, STAT5, and p27 in AML patients.

    Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from forty-one newly diagnosed AML patients and ten healthy individuals to evaluate the expression levels of the study genes using qRT-PCR analysis. The probable correlation between the gene expressions was determined using Pearson’s correlation test.

    Results: The results showed that while there was a significant elevation in the expression of FLT3, c-Myc, STAT3, and HOTAIR, p27 expression remarkably diminished in AML patients compared to the control group. Also, a correlation was found between the expression of FLT-3 and p27 and the expression of HOTAIR and STAT3. It was assumed that FLT-3 had a role in increasing the proliferative and survival capacity of AML cells, at least partly, through c-Myc-mediated suppression of p27. Moreover, lncRNA HOTAIR showed to be involved in leukemia proliferation assumably by enhancing the expression of STAT3.

    Conclusion: Overall, the results of gene profile analysis suggested that studying the expression of HOTAIR, FLT-3, c-Myc, STAT3, and p27 could be helpful to AML patients, and each of these genes could be a valuable target for pharmaceutic intervention.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 33 | views: 73 | pages: 156-166

    Background: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and microvascular thrombosis. No comprehensive report exists on clinical characteristics and risk factors of relapse and mortality in Iranian TTP patients. In this study, we aimed to report clinical features of Iranian TTP patients, to evaluate disease relapse and mortality rate and their associated risk factors.

    Materials and Methods: This study was a cohort study of patients diagnosed with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia admitted to the Shariati Hospital, Tehran, a referral center for TTP patients, from 2010 to 2017. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded and patients were followed for 3 years regarding disease relapse and mortality.

    Results:  114 patients (80 female, 34 male) with a mean age of 39.3 ± 14.99 years were included.  Hematologic and neurologic symptoms were the most common manifestations. Abnormal laboratory findings at the presentation included thrombocytopenia, anemia, and elevated LDH. All patients were treated with plasma exchange, and 75.5% of them had a response to treatment, while the 3-year relapse and mortality rate was 23.6 and 26.3%.  Lower platelet count was a predictor of disease relapse. Age, hematological, or neurological initial presentation were associated with TTP mortality.

    Conclusion: Based on the largest study of TTP patients ever in Iran, the demographic and clinical characteristics of Iranian TTP patients are similar to other existing reports. Knowledge of the risk factors for TTP relapse and mortality could be useful to alert hematologists for prompt therapeutic actions when necessary.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 28 | views: 56 | pages: 167-176

    Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has led to an alteration in hygienic conditions. In this situation, improving standard operating procedures (SOPs) in blood donation centers is critical. The purpose of this study was the assessment of SOPs in the blood donation centers during the outbreak of COVID-19 by regular blood donors as external audits.

    Materials and Methods: Regular donors were selected as external inspectors in 31 provinces of Iran. The questionnaire containing 10 closed questions was provided to assess the hygienic SOPs of blood transfusion centers in the prevention of COVID-19 transmission. Comparison and evaluation of questionnaires were conducted by assigning an importance coefficient (IC)  score to each question.

    Results: Assessment of SOPs in blood donation departments by regular donors in 31 provinces of Iran showed that 18 centers (58.1%) received IC scores >10(Strong performance), 7 centers (22.6%) received the range of IC scores between7-10(acceptable performance), and 6 centers (19.4%) received IC scores <7(poor performance). The difference in IC scores between provinces was not statistically significant.

    Conclusion: This study confirms that the assessment of blood donation centers through regular blood donor inspection is a reliable method to identify the strengths and weaknesses of blood transfusion center services and ultimately leads to corrective intervention and improvement of hygienic SOPs to prevent COVID-19 transmission.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 24 | views: 76 | pages: 177-185

    Background: One of the acute hematologic malignancies is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is formed in B or T lymphocyte stem cells. Regarding the increasing tendency to herbal and marine studies, and on the other hand, the characteristics of Cassiopea andromeda Venom remain unclear, this study was performed to determine its effects on Jurkat cells as a model for T-ALL.

    Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the cells were treated with a variety of concentrations of Cassiopea andromeda venom at different periods and times. Growth inhibition and toxic effects of Cassiopea andromeda Venom were evaluated by methyl thiazole tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT test). The flow cytometry analysis was carried out using 7-aminoactinomycin D (7AAD) and Annexin V stains for evaluating this venom’s effect on apoptotic pathways. Besides, Real-Time PCR was performed to evaluate the relative gene expression.

    Results: Cassiopea andromeda venom inhibited the growth of Jurkat cells in a concentration- and time manner. Jurkat cell growth was inhibited by 48.9%, after 72 hours of treatment with 250µg/mL Cassiopea andromeda venom. This venom increased the apoptotic process through the upregulation of p15INK4b and P53 proteins and downregulation of Bcl-2, p21 WAF1/CIP1, and DNMT1 in the Jurkat cell line.

    Conclusion: Considering the growth inhibitory property of Cassiopea andromeda Venom, we recommend it as a part of combinational medication for treating ALL in animal trials and for other leukemias in vitro studies.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 25 | views: 54 | pages: 186-193

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in females. Accordingly, the evaluation of new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets is of vital importance. Here, we aimed to detect androgen receptor (AR) status and define its association with clinicopathologic parameters in patients with invasive breast cancer.

    Materials and Methods: In this study, AR status was studied in 104 patients with invasive breast carcinoma by immunohistochemistry. Besides, its association with clinicopathologic factors, i.e., age, menopausal status, tumor size, lymph node involvement, tumor stage, tumor grade and estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Her2/neu, Ki-67and P53 were investigated.

    Results: AR was positive in 84 patients (80.8%), and its expression in ER-positive (85.7%) and PR-positive (85.6%) patients were remarkably higher than in ER-negative (46.2%) and PR-negative (50%) patients (p= 0.001 andp=0.002, respectively). AR expression was noticeably lower in Her2/neu positive (25%) patients compared to Her2/neu negative (87.9%) ones (p=0.000). AR expression was also higher in patients with smaller, earlier stage, and low mitotically active tumors, but the association was not statistically significant.

    Conclusion: The expression of AR in patients with breast cancer was found to be high and its association with ER-positive, PR-positive, and HER2/neu-negative tumors was found to be significant. In that light, this receptor may play an important role in the determination of prognosis and targeted therapy in breast cancer.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 25 | views: 60 | pages: 194-199

    Background: Chemotherapy with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD regimen) cannot cure all patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and adverse effect of a new regimen consist irinotecan, cisplatin, and dexamethasone (ICD) in relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma as the second to fifth line of treatment.

    Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective study in 26 relapsed or refractory patients with Hodgkin lymphoma receiving at least the first-line chemotherapy regimen (ABVD) and (ICD) as salvage therapy in Thaleghany Hospital from 2012 to 2018. This regimen consisted of irinotecan 65mg/m2 D1, D8, cisplatin 30mg/m2 D1, D8, and dexamethasone 40mg D1, 2, 8, and 9 was administered every 3 weeks for 6 cycles.  Treatment was discontinued in cases of disease progression or severe toxicity. Response to treatment was evaluated after two cycles. Patients with complete and partial remission were candidate high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of 22 patients was 31.5 (19-67) years. Seven patients (29.1%) were in the first recurrence, and 17 (70.8%) were in the second or subsequent recurrence.

    Results: According to this study, three patients (12.5%) had complete response, 13 (45%) had partial response, four (16.6%) had stable disease, and four (16.6%) had progressive disease. Nine patients (37.5%) received high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell support after ICD regimen. None of the cycles of chemotherapy were delayed due to treatment-related adverse event. Overall survival after six months in all patients was 91%, and mortality rate was 8.3% at the end of the study.

    Conclusion: The goal of salvage chemotherapy in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma is achieving CR or PR preparation patients for stabilization with BMT. Thus, we recommend ICD as one of the most effective protocols with overall response rate of 66% in this population.



  • XML | PDF | downloads: 42 | views: 41 | pages: 200-209

    Background: Transfusion support has an essential role in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The time-honored gold standard for CABG is the on-pump procedure (ONCAB); however, off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) is also a safe, cost-benefit procedure with fewer blood transfusion requirements. This study was performed to evaluate transfusion patterns in OPCAB due to the diversity of transfusion practices.

    Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed to determine the transfusion rate and triggers in OPCAB patients. Medical files of all patients undergoing OPCAB surgery at Sanandaj Tohid Hospital in 2014 were reviewed. Patients’ demographics data, preoperative laboratory tests (PT, aPTT, Hb, Hct, Platelet count), underlying medical conditions, and their possible relation to further transfusions and the ward department in which the transfusion had taken place were extracted. SPSS 16 Chicago software, T-student Test, One Way Anova, and χ2 exam were applied for data analysis. P values ≤0.05was considered significant.

    Results: Among 91 elective OPCAB patients: 28(30.8%) women and 63(69.2%) men with mean age of 64.80±9.02 years, 63(69.23%) received a blood product. Mean utilization of PRBC, FFP, Platelet, and Cryoprecipitate were 2.17±2.044, 2.46±2.86, 2.86±3.80 and 0.40±2.10 units, respectively. ICU revealed the highest consumption rate for all products.  Female sex (p<0.001), Hypertension (P=0.002), and low hemoglobin(P=0.004) were noted as predictive factors for transfusion. 

    Conclusion: This study concluded that the transfusion rate in OPCAB is still very high in Iran (regarding a study in a countryside hospital) and that the highest utilization rate is seen in the ICU.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 25 | views: 44 | pages: 210-219

    Background: Recently, the prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased. Although there are known risk factors for thyroid cancer, none of them can justify this recent increase. In addition to the known risk factors, other risk factors have been proposed. Leptin can be considered as one of these risk factors due to the recent increase in the prevalence of obesity in the population. Leptin is a common factor in obesity and thyroid cancer. Leptin exerts anti-apoptotic and mitogenic effects on cancer cells and also acts as an angiogenic factor. This study aimed to evaluate the serum leptin level in individuals who suffer from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), cases with benign thyroid nodules (BTN), and a healthy group.

    Materials and Methods: In this study, newly diagnosed patients with PTC, BTNs, as well as euthyroid healthy control subjects without nodules were included. In all these participants, various clinical and laboratory parameters including thyroid function tests and serum leptin levels were measured and compared between the three study groups. For patients with PTC, leptin was assessed 12 weeks after total thyroidectomy.

    Results: Ninety-one cases with PTC, 90 cases with BTNs, and 88 controls were recruited. Serum leptin levels in the PTC group, benign group, and the control group were 22.34, 17.60, and 13.83 ng/ml, respectively, which was considerably higher in PTC cases compared to those with benign nodules and control group (P<0.001). There was a significant association between leptin with BMI, tumor size, and tumor stage in PTC patients. Also, in patients with BTNs, a correlation between BMI, tumor size, and leptin was observed.

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels were considerably higher in cases with PTC than those with BTNs and controls and can be considered as a potential tumor marker for papillary thyroid cancer.


Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 44 | views: 136 | pages: 220-223

    Since December 2019 and the global epidemic of COVID-19 different countries have focused on vaccines, and one of the inactivated produced vaccines was the Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine. Some side effects of this vaccine were reported previously, including pain at the vaccination site, fatigue, lethargy, headache, and tenderness, which were more prevalent among individuals <49 years old.

    Herein, we reported two patients aged 45 and 51 years old. Both patients have different signs and symptoms after receiving the second dose of the vaccine. None had a history of chronic disease. On examination and following labs and other diagnostic investigations, we found megaloblastic anemia due to atrophic gastritis and low intrinsic factor. These cases showed an autoimmune side effect of the Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine that was previously reported with an exact mechanism but other features called Covid Arm, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and thrombocytopenia. The mechanism of this reaction is unclear yet.