2020 CiteScore: 2.6
Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh, MD.
Vol 14, No 2 (2020)
Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most prevalent acute leukemia in adults. Bone marrow angiogenesis is crucial for pathogenesis of leukemia, and increasing bone marrow Mean Vascular Density (MVD) and level of angiogenesis factors are seen in patients with AML. Higher level of bone marrow MVD is associated with poor prognosis of AML according to previous studies. The present study aimed to compare bone marrow MVD in AML patients and controls and evaluate the relation between bone marrow MVD and number of residual blast cells after AML treatment.
Materials and Methods: This study is a longitudinal study on AML patients who were admitted to Omid hospital. The bone marrow biopsies of patients with AML and patients with normal diagnosis –as control group- were taken from archives of pathology laboratory. Immunohistochemistry staining was used for all specimens by using thrombomodulin markers for calculating MVD. Flow cytometry findings of AML patients were assessed for percent of minimal residual disease (MRD) after AML treatment in AML patients group.
Results: In this study, 27 AML patients and 24 healthy individuals with mean age of 40.92±15.13 years were evaluated, of whom 56.86% were male. The mean bone marrow MVD was significantly higher in AML patients than controls. The mean bone marrow MVD was significantly higher in males and there was insignificant reverse correlation between bone marrow MVD and MRD. About 59.3% of AML patients had response to treatment and there was no significant relationship between MVD and response to treatment.
Conclusion: Bone marrow MVD was higher in AML patients than controls and there was no remarkable relationship between bone marrow MVD and MRD and response to treatment.
Background: Acute T lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) is a highly aggressive hematologic malignancy. Chemotherapy resistance is one of the most important challenges in T-ALL treatment. Alterations in cellular signaling pathways such as Notch1 and PI3K / AKT / mTOR play a role in cell proliferation, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy. Combination of Notch1 and PI3K / AKT / mTOR inhibitors is an interesting and rational strategy in treatment of T-ALL. Interaction of AZD5363 as an inhibitor of PI3k / AKT / mTOR and Compound E as an inhibitor of Notch1 signaling pathway was investigated in a T-ALL pre-clinical model.
Materials and Methods: T-ALL cell lines included Jurkat, Molt-4, and HPB- ALL cells were treated with AZD5363 and Compound E alone and in combination. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Interaction between AZD5363 and Compound E was assessed by Chou-Talalay method.
Results: Combination treatment with AZD5363 and Compound E decreased cell viability with synergistic effect in all cell lines at 72 hours. Drug combination increased apoptosis even in Jurkat and HPB-ALL cells resistant to Compound E and AZD5363, respectively.
Conclusion: Combination of AZD5363 with Compound E in T-ALL cell lines exhibited a synergistic effect. Cytotoxicity of drug combination increased in all T-ALL cell lines compared to each as a single drug. Simultaneous inhibition of Notch1 and PI3K / AKT signaling pathways as a possible treatment of T-ALL, provides a basis for future investigations.
Objective: A genetic polymorphism of 50 bp insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) (rs 36232792) in the promoter region of the SOD1 was reported to influence the enzyme activity. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the status of this polymorphism on the SOD1 levels in human peripheral blood cells and its association with risk of oxidative stress in beta thalassemia major patients.
Material and Methods: The study was carried out on 200 thalassemia major patients and 200 healthy controls healthy. The SOD1 genotypes were determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. Serum SOD activity were assessed using SOD assay kit. In-silico analysis was assessed using loss-of-function (LofTool) (PMID: 27563026).
Results: No association was found between the insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism of SOD1 and risk of oxidative stress in thalassemia major patients
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the oxidative sterss is not affected by the Ins/ Del polymorphism of SOD1 in thalassemia major patients. Further research with larger samples size and with other genes of antioxidant system is required.
At present, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment for β thalassemic patients. Conventional myeloablative stem cell transplantation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and non-myeloablative stem cell transplantation is associated with high graft failure rate. Some modification in this treatment approach can result in successful transplantation in thalassemic patients.
Two successful Fludarabine - based non-myeloablative stem cell transplantation in two Class III β thalassemic patients are reported here. The first patient was a 14-year old girl that developed rapid engraftment and full Chimerism after rapid tapering of cyclosporine as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis drug according to our protocol. Another patient was a 24-year old female patient that developed cyclosporine toxicity, and early tapering of cyclosporine helped for rapid engraftment and successful transplantation.
After these two successful experiments in non-myeloablative peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for our class III β thalassemic patients, we concluded that Fludarabine-based nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation with adequate number of stem cells at the time of transplantation and rapid tapering of GVHD prophylaxis drugs after transplantation can potentially help for rapid engraftment and successful stem cell transplantation in high risk β-thalassemic patients.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is a very aggressive malignant disorder of lymphoid cells in adults, with recurrence (30 to 60% of the cases) after the initial treatment. Until this moment, there is no gold standard therapy for the treatment of adult patients with acute relapsed/refractory lymphoblastic leukemia. In this case report, we describe two cases of relapsed leukemia: one of lymphocytic leukemia B and one of trilineage leukemia, which presented a satisfactory response to treatment with Bortezomib associated with Vincristine, Dexamethasone, and Bendamustine.
Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia (GHDD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder presenting with steroid-responsive anemia and diaphyseal dysplasia of long bones. We report a 3-year-old Iranian girl with refractory anemia, splenomegaly and radiologic signs of metadiaphyseal dysplasia in long bones. The diagnosis was established by clinical presentation and X-ray bone survey. The patient was treated with oral prednisolone therapy with considerable improvement in anemia and splenomegaly.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). APL is famed with some special blood coagulation disorders such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The therapeutic methods of APL contain All Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA), arsenic trioxide (ATO) or/and chemotherapy. Many studies have been done on APL blood disorders and its treatment. These studies have shown different results. In this systematic article, we tried to review the effect of ATO therapy with or without ATRA and chemotherapy on DIC parameters (D.dimer, Prothrombin Time, Activated Partial Thrombin Time, Platelet count) in APL patients. The result of included studies demonstrated that although ATO can reduce the number of malignant cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood, it does not have enough potential to attenuate the danger of high score DIC that is usual in APL patients and should be better to be used with other therapeutic methods.
Hemoglobinopathies are the most common single gene disorders (monogenic disorders) in the world population. Due to specific position of Iran and the presence of multi-ethnic groups in the country, there are many varieties in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Hemoglobinopathies include structural variants, thalassemias, and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. In this review, we look at the common structural variants in various parts of the country along with their hematological and clinical characteristics. Also, we discuss about the burden of the thalassemias in the country, different types, complications, molecular defects and therapy.
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